Italian forces were generally held in little regard by the Germans, and were accused of low morale: in reality, the Italian divisions fought comparatively well, with the 3rd Mountain Infantry Division Ravenna and 5th Infantry Division Cosseria showing spirit, according to a German liaison officer.
Hrvatska pukovnija 369. na Istočnom bojištu 1941–1943.  955 Soviet civilians died in Stalingrad and its suburbs from aerial bombing by Luftflotte 4 as the German 4th Panzer and 6th Armies approached the city.  The Turkish Consul in Moscow predicted that "the lands which the Germans have destined for their living space will become their dying space". Stalin's Order No. [Note 8] To supplement the limited number of Junkers Ju 52 transports, the Germans pressed other aircraft into the role, such as the Heinkel He 177 bomber (some bombers performed adequately – the Heinkel He 111 proved to be quite capable and was much faster than the Ju 52). The loss of the two airfields, at Pitomnik on 16 January 1943 and Gumrak on the night of 21/22 January, meant an end to air supplies and to the evacuation of the wounded.
The Battle of Stalingrad is considered highly significant among the events of World War II for reasons such as, the extremely high number of casualties and it was a huge (arguably even the largest) turning point that led to the Allies victory. 227 ("Not a step back!") The northern pocket consisting of the VIIIth Corps, under General Walter Heitz, and the XIth Corps, was now cut off from telephone communication with Paulus in the southern pocket. Hitler thought that the capture of Stalingrad would help boost the Nazi’s morale and lower the Russians morale especially since the city of Stalingrad was named after the Russian leader at the time. While a motorised breakout might have been possible in the first few weeks, the 6th Army now had insufficient fuel and the German soldiers would have faced great difficulty breaking through the Soviet lines on foot in harsh winter conditions. However, it’s believed that tens of thousands were killed, and that tens of thousands more were captured and forced into slave labor in camps in Germany. On January 30, Hitler promoted Paulus to field marshal.
On December 12, Field Marshall Erich von Manstein launched Operation Winter Storm but was unable to break through to the beleaguered 6th Army. In December, having suffered multiple defeats during the summer and autumn, Soviet forces counter-attacked during the Battle of Moscow and successfully drove the German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) from the environs of Moscow.
General Richthofen informed Manstein on 27 November of the small transport capacity of the Luftwaffe and the impossibility of supplying 300 tons a day by air. The Germans made slow but steady progress through the city. There was an overwhelming surge in confidence and belief in victory. [Note 7], As historian Chris Bellamy notes, the Germans paid a high strategic price for the aircraft sent into Stalingrad: the Luftwaffe was forced to divert much of its air strength away from the oil-rich Caucasus, which had been Hitler's original grand-strategic objective. " After conducting hundreds of interviews with Soviet veterans on the subject of terror on the Eastern Front – and specifically about Order No. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Paulus testified for the prosecution during the Nuremberg Trials and assured families in Germany that those soldiers taken prisoner at Stalingrad were safe. At the height of the German occupation of Stalingrad, the German 6th Army controlled nearly 90 percent of the city.  More Soviet tanks were destroyed as they overran the Romanian airfields.  Soviet nurses not only treated wounded personnel under fire but were involved in the highly dangerous work of bringing wounded soldiers back to the hospitals under enemy fire. Despite heavy casualties and the pounding delivered by the Luftwaffe, Stalin instructed his forces in the city to not retreat, famously decreeing in Order No.
Working with General Aleksandr Vasilevsky, he massed troops on steppes to the north and south of Stalingrad. The battle at Stalingrad…. Hitler was furious and confided that Paulus "could have freed himself from all sorrow and ascended into eternity and national immortality, but he prefers to go to Moscow.". In another part of the city, a Soviet platoon under the command of Sergeant Yakov Pavlov fortified a four-story building that oversaw a square 300 meters from the river bank, later called Pavlov's House. One of the ironies of the war, is that the German Sixth Army need not have got entangled in Stanlingrad. Some winter uniforms had arrived but not nearly enough. The plan was similar to the one Zhukov had used to achieve victory at Khalkhin Gol three years before, where he had sprung a double envelopment and destroyed the 23rd Division of the Japanese army.. The 6th Army now was beyond all hope of German relief. The armies in the area were also poorly equipped in terms of anti-tank weapons. The Germans set up a "mobile defence" of small units that were to hold towns until supporting armour arrived. The Battle of Stalingrad was fought from July 17, 1942 to February 2, 1943, during World War II (1939-1945). Every day! Of the 210,000 Germans, 10,000 remained to fight on, 105,000 surrendered, 35,000 left by air and the remaining 60,000 died. A significant historical debate concerns the degree of terror in the Red Army. Thanks to Russian gains in nearby fighting, including in Rostov-on-Don, 250 miles from Stalingrad, the Axis forces – mostly Germans and Italians – were stretched thin.
From the Stalingrad campaign, the Soviets lost 479,000 soldiers (killed or captured), while another 651,000 became ill/ wounded. At the beginning of February 1943, the Axis forces in Stalingrad, having exhausted their ammunition and food, surrendered:932 after five months, one week and three days of fighting. The battle started with the South Western Front. " Infantryman Lev Lvovich's explanation, for example, is typical for these interviews; as he recalls, "[i]t was a necessary and important step. This was supported by 4th Panzer Army which attacked Stalingrad's southern suburbs. Occasionally Italian actions were mentioned in official German communiques. at Stalingrad – Catherine Merridale notes that, seemingly paradoxically, "their response was frequently relief.  The remaining tanks were used as immobile strong-points within the city. The offensive was repelled. The German offensive to capture Stalingrad began in August 1942, using the 6th Army and elements of the 4th Panzer Army.
During the period of World War II, there was a magnitude of battles that were fought. By the end of August, Army Group South (B) had finally reached the Volga, north of Stalingrad.  The Soviet-controlled area shrank down to a few strips of land along the western bank of the Volga, and in November the fighting concentrated around what Soviet newspapers referred to as "Lyudnikov's Island", a small patch of ground behind the Barrikady Factory where the remnants of Colonel Ivan Lyudnikov's 138th Rifle Division resisted all ferocious assaults thrown by the Germans and became a symbol of the stout Soviet defence of Stalingrad. By the end of July, the Germans had pushed the Soviets across the Don River. 227: “Not a step back!” Those who surrendered would be subject to a trial by military tribunal and face possible execution. Marshal Zhukov used six armies of one million men to surround the city. :195 The VVS remained qualitatively inferior, but by the time of the Soviet counter-offensive, the VVS had reached numerical superiority. On June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany launched Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa). Stalin rushed all available troops to the east bank of the Volga, some from as far away as Siberia. -Wikipedia (1988). These operations opened the Winter Campaign of 1942–1943 (19 November 1942 – 3 March 1943), which involved some fifteen Armies operating on several fronts. Some of the taller buildings, blasted into roofless shells by earlier German aerial bombardment, saw floor-by-floor, close-quarters combat, with the Germans and Soviets on alternate levels, firing at each other through holes in the floors.
On 22 January, Rokossovsky once again offered Paulus a chance to surrender. The remaining forces continued to resist, hiding in cellars and sewers but by early March 1943, the last small and isolated pockets of resistance had surrendered. 2 Nomonhan: Japanese-Soviet Tactical Combat, 1939; MAPS, Meine Stalingradeinsätze (My Stalingrad Sorties), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wQ4Jz0H4fAA&feature=youtu.be. The Germans called this unseen urban warfare Rattenkrieg ("Rat War"), and bitterly joked about capturing the kitchen but still fighting for the living room and the bedroom. -The Battle of Stalingrad. We are lying in the north of the city. On November 19th, the Russians were in a position whereby they could launch a counter-offensive.
The attack was supported by intense Luftwaffe bombing that reduced much of the city to rubble. On February 2, 1943, the final pocket of German resistance surrendered, ending over five months of fighting. This indicates 955 people were killed and another 1,181 wounded. VIII. Some 1,000 tons of bombs were dropped in 48 hours, more than in London at the height of the Blitz. According to Frieser: 109,000 Romanians casualties (from November 1942 to December 1942), included 70,000 captured or missing. Marked by fierce close-quarters combat and direct assaults on civilians in air raids, it is one of the bloodiest battles in the history of warfare, with an estimated 2 million total casualties. 2017].
In deciding to promote Paulus, Hitler noted that there was no record of a German or Prussian field marshal having ever surrendered. I can only hold my mug with my thumb and little finger. In addition, as many as 40,000 civilians were killed.
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